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Английская грамматика по уровням

английская грамматика по уровням

Как выглядит английская грамматика по уровням?

В этом посте подробно обсудим, какую грамматику проходят на разных уровнях изучения английского - от начального до продвинутого. Увидим примеры этой грамматики и проведем небольшой тест.

На всякий случай напомню, что грамматика - это всего лишь один аспект изучения языка. Нужный, полезный, да. Но далеко не единственный.

А как было бы хорошо - выучил грамматику и, считай, освоил английский))


Английская грамматика по уровням

Вы увидите, что частенько на разных уровнях повторяется одна и та же грамматика. Подробнее о том, почему так происходит, в этом посте. Вкратце же:

  • не все грамматические конструкции усваиваются с первого раза (повторение - мать учения)))
  • на низких уровнях явления рассматриваются отдельно друг от друга, а на более высоких уровнях - сравниваются между собой
  • по мере улучшения уровня английского выясняется, что у каждой грамматической конструкции есть нюансы и тонкости, о которых коварные преподаватели до поры до времени молчат, чтобы не создавать путаницу

И подробнее о том, зачем вообще нужно деление по уровням.

Английская грамматика по уровням - в разных учебниках - выглядит примерно одинаково. Поэтому за основу возьму один из самых популярных учебников - English File.

Кстати, эта английская грамматика по уровням может быть своего рода тестом. Загляните в любой раздел и посмотрите - понимаете ли вы предложения с примерами грамматики? Но - что еще важнее - используете ли вы такие конструкции в речи? Если нет, возможно, это пока не ваш уровень. Если да, перейдите в следующий уровень и проделайте то же самое.

Английская грамматика по уровням - короткий путь в нужный раздел:


beg


Грамматика уровня Beginner / Starter

На уровне Beginner проходят основы основ - самые простые конструкции. Одновременно - и самые важные, потому что на них будет основана вся сложная грамматика более высоких уровней.

На этом уровне много внимания уделяется формам - опять-таки, чтобы достичь определенного автоматизма в простых вещах, вроде I am, you are, he is. Грамматические конструкции на уровне Beginner в основном рассматриваются отдельно друг от друга, чтобы избежать путаницы сравнений и нюансов.

Какую грамматику
проходят на уровне
Beginner / Starter

Пример грамматики
  
to be: am / is / are
утверждения
отрицания
вопросы
I'm from Russia / You're in class 2 / He's 30 years old.
I'm not from Moscow / You aren't late / He isn't French.
Am I late? Are you from the UK? Is he French?
How are you? Where is he from?
Единственное и
множественное
число
a book - books
a watch - watches
an umbrella - umbrellas
this, these
that, those
What's this? What are these? How much is this bag?
What's that? What are those?
Притяжательные
местоимения
I - my / you - your / we - our / they - their
he - his / she - her / it - its
Притяжательное 's
Maria's children, John's birthday, my parents' car
Прилагательные
It's a fast car - This car is fast
They're expensive shoes - These shoes are expensive
Present Simple
утверждения
отрицания
вопросы
I have breakfast at home / She lives in a flat.
I don't go to work by bus / She doesn't have a pet.
Do you understand me? / Does she work here?
Where do you live? / When does she start work?
Наречия
(adverbs of frequency)
always, usually
often, sometimes,
hardly ever, never
Вопросы с be и do
Where are you from? / Where do you live?
can, can't
I can play the guitar / I can't sing. / Can I park here?
like, love, hate
с герундием
I like swimming / I love reading
I hate doing housework
Present Continuous
I'm driving to the airport at the moment
What are you doing?
There is / there are
There is bar in this hotel but there aren't any restaurants.
Past Simple:
was / were
regular verbs
(правильные глаголы)
irregular verbs
(неправильные глаголы) 
I was born in 1988.
Where were you at 7 o'clock last night?
I arrived in Stockholm early in the morning.
What time did you arrive?
I bought some souvenirs.
What did you buy?
Present Continuous
для будущего времени
I'm arriving in Venice on April 10.
Where are you staying?


elem


Грамматика уровня Elementary

Уровень Elementary очень похож на предыдущий уровень. Скажу больше, частенько вместо Beginner мы с учениками беремся сразу за Elementary, просто чуть более тщательно его проходим.

Грамматика Elementary практически один в один повторяет грамматику предыдущего уровня.

Какую грамматику
проходят на уровне
Elementary

Примеры грамматики
  
to be: am / is / are
утверждения
отрицания
вопросы
My name's Anna / You're early / My email address is...
I'm not English / It isn't far
Where are you from? / What's your phone number?
How old are you?
Притяжательные
местоимения
I - my / you - your / we - our / they - their
he - his / she - her / it - its
Единственное и
множественное
число
a book - books / a watch - watches
an umbrella - umbrellas
a man - men, a woman - women, a person - people
this, these
that, those
What's this? What are these? How much is this bag?
What's that? What are those?
Прилагательные
It's an empty box- This box is empty.
They're cheap / quite cheap / really cheap
Повелительное
наклонение (imperative)
Let's
Open the door / Sit down / Turn off your mobile.
Let's take a break / Let's go to the cinema.
Present Simple
утверждения
отрицания
вопросы
I wear glasses / They drink tea / It rains a lot
I don't have children / They don't live here / It doesn't work
Do you live in a flat? / Does she speak German?
What time does it open?
Притяжательное 's
Whose
Justin Bieber's sister, George Clooney's father
Whose bag is it?
Предлоги времени
и места
at 7am, in the morning, at the weekend, in March
on Monday, at school, in the park
Наречия
always, usually, often, sometimes, hardly ever, never
every day, twice a week, three times a year
can / can't
Where can I park? / I can't hear you.
Present Continuous
What's happening? What are you looking at?
Object pronouns
I - me / we - us / they - them
he - him / she - her / it - it
like / love / enjoy
don't mind
hate с герундием
I like / love / enjoy reading in bed.
I don't mind cooking.
I hate getting up early.
Вопросы с be и do
Are you a fan of any band?
When do you usually listen to music?
Past Simple
was / were
regular verbs
(правильные глаголы)
irregular verbs
(неправильные гл.)
Where were you?
I was at a party last weekend / They were angry
They chatted and listened to music.
What did they do?
I wore a black dress.
What did you wear?
there is / there are
some / any
There's a dining room. There are three bedrooms.
Are there any neighbors? There are some paintings.
there was / there were
Was there a mini-bar in your room?
There were 3 other guests.
Исчисляемые и
неисчисляемые
существительные
an apple, a banana
some sugar, some rice
We need some sugar / There isn't any milk.
How much / how many
a lot of, some, none
How much free time do you have?
How many friends do you have on Facebook?
Сравнительные
прилагательные
A proton is heavier than an electron.
Mosquitoes are more dangerous than sharks.
good - better / bad - worse / far - further
Превосходные
прилагательные
It's the longest river in the world.
It's the most popular art gallery in the world.
Going to для планов
I'm going to travel round Europe.
Going to для прогнозов
You're going to like it.
Наречия
speak fast, know him well, drive carefully
Глаголы
с инфинитивом
want to talk to you, would like to learn to cook
need to stop
Артикли
I'm a student / It's the oldest university in Europe.
Present Perfect
I've seen Harry Potter but I haven't read the book.
Have you ever eaten sushi?
preint


Грамматика уровня Pre-intermediate

На уровне Pre-intermediate уже начинают сравнивать разные конструкции между собой и выяснять нюансы. Почему где-то лучше сказать I study economics, а где-то - I'm studying economics.

Какую грамматику
проходят на уровне
Pre-intermediate

Пример грамматики
  
Порядок слов
в вопросах
Do you speak English? What languages do you speak?
Did you go out last night? Where did you go?
Present SImple
She has a lot of hobbies. We don't get on very well.
Present Continuous
John is wearing a suit today! He usually wears jeans.
Past Simple
Where did you go on holiday last year? We went to Italy.
Past Continuous
When you called me, I was talking to my boss.
союзы
although, but, so, because
Going to
планы
прогнозы

What are you going to do when you leave school?
We are going to be late for work!
Present Continuous
для будущих
договоренностей

I'm meeting Joe at 3 o'clock.
When are you coming back?
Relative clauses
This is the restaurant where they make great pizza.
Present Perfect
yet, just, already
I've just started a new job.
I've already seen this film. / Have you finished yet?
Present Perfect
и Past Simple
Have you ever been to  Mexico?
When did you go there?
something / anything
nothing (where / one)
Did anyone phone? No, no one.
Is there anywhere to park?
Сравнительные
прилагательные
и наречия
Driving is more dangerous than flying.
I'm as tall as my brother.
Can you speak more slowly, please?
Превосходные
прилагательные
It's the best film I've seen this year.
It's the worst meal I've ever eaten.
Quantifiers
how much / how many / too / enough
will / won't / shall
прогнозы,
спонтанные решения
обещания и т.д.
Shall I open the window?
You'll like it.
I think I'll go home now.
I'll always love you.
Употребление
инфинитива
Try not to talk about politics.
I came to this school to learn English.
Be careful not to drive too fast.
Употребление -ing form
(герундия)
Waking up early in the morning makes me happy.
He left without saying goodbye.
Модальные глаголы
have to, don't have to
must, mustn't
I have to get up at seven every day.
I don't have to wear a uniform.
You mustn't leave your bags here.
should
What do you think I should do? You should see a doctor.
First Conditional
(первое условное)
If I miss the last train, I'll get a taxi.

Притяжательные
местоимения
mine, yours, theirs, ours
his, hers, its
Second Conditional
(второе условное)
I'd do more exercise if I had more time.
What would you do if you won a million dollars?
Present Perfect
for, since
How long have you lived here?
I've known her for 15 years / since we were children.
Passive
present и past
Nowadays a lot of toys are made in China.
This morning I was woken up by the neighbor's dog.
used to
She used to wear glasses.
mightShe might come with us, she's not sure yet.
Предлоги движения
into, out of, over, along, across, through
So do / am / did I
Neither do / am / did I
I'm married. - So am I.
I don't know him. - Neither do I.
Past Perfect
The show had already finished by the time I arrived.
Reported speech
(косвенная речь)
He said that he was hungry.
She told me that her car had broken down.
Вопросы без
вспомогательных
глаголов
How many people came to the meeting?
Who invented the radio?
int


Грамматика уровня Intermediate

На уровне Intermediate тоже сравнивают уже знакомые явления между собой и, конечно, изучают новые.

Какую грамматику
проходят на уровне
Intermediate
Пример грамматики
  
Present Simple
vs Present Cont.
action / non-action
I never cook vs What are you cooking?
I have a dog vs I'm having lunch
I think it's a good idea vs I'm thinking about you
Future:
will / won't
going to
Present Continuous

I'll help you. Do you think it'll rain? You'll love this film!
I'm going to buy a new car. Barcelona are going to win.
They are getting married in October.
Present Perfect
vs Past Simple
I've been to London before. He hasn't found a new job yet.
When did you go there? How did the interview go?
Present Perfect
Pres. Perf. Continuous
for, since
They've known each other for 5 years / since 2010.
I've been studying English for 10 years.
How long have you been waiting?
Степени сравнения
прилагательных
(comparative adj.,
superlative adj.)
My brother is a bit / much taller than me.
This chair isn't as comfortable as that one.
It's the most expensive city in the world.
He's the smartest person I've ever met.
Артикли
I saw a nice house with a fancy porch.
The porch was decorated with plants.
can, could, be able to
I can sing. I could swim when I was 4.
I've never  been able to dance. I'd like to be able to draw.
must / mustn't
have to / don't have to
should / shouldn't
You must wear a seatbelt / You mustn't exceed the speed limit.
Do I have to pay now? / You don't have to come.
You should stop smoking / You shouldn't drink so much coffee.
Past Simple
Past Continuous
Past Perfect
When I got home, my family had dinnner.
When I got home, my family were having dinner.
When I got home, my family had had dinner.
usually
vs used to
I usually get up at 6am.
I used to get up at 11 when I was unemployed.
The Passive
(все времена)
A lot of films are shot on location. The film is being shot.
The film has been shot. The film will be shot on location.
might, must, can('t)
для догадок
She might like the idea. This must be difficult for you!
You can't be serious!
First Conditional
Future time clauses
The boss won't be happy if you are late for work again.
As soon as you get your exam results, call me.
Second Conditional
What would you do if you met a celebrity?
If I were you, I'd buy a new car.
Reported speech
(косвенная речь)
I asked him if he wanted to join us.
She told me she had lost her wallet.
Gerund and infinitive
(герундий
и инфинитив)
I'm not good at remembering names. I don't mind getting up early.
Shopping is my favorite pastime. I don't know what to do.
My house is easy to find. Try not to  make a noise.
Third Conditional
If I had known about the party, I would have gone.
Quantifiers
I eat a lot of chocolate. She earns a lot. We have plenty of time.
There aren''t enough parks. There's too much traffic.
Relative clauses
That's the house where I was born.
Question tags
They live in New York, don't they? You aren't angry, are you?
upper


Грамматика уровня Upper-intermediate

К продвинутому уровню Upper-intermediate обычно наступает просветление основы основ уже пройдены. Остается их немного повторить и приступать к интересностям и тонкостям грамматики.

Какую грамматику
проходят на уровне
Upper-intermediate

Примеры грамматики
  
Question formation
(порядок слов
в вопросах)
Direct and indirect
questions
Are you talking about me?
What are you talking about?

What time does it open?
Do you know what time it opens?
Auxuliary verbs
(вспомогательные
гглаголы)
I like dogs, but my wife doesn't.
- I loved the film! - So did I.
- I've finished. - Have you?
the ... the ...
comparatives
The sooner, the better.
The longer you wait, the worse it gets.
Present Perfect vs
Present Perfect
Continuous
She has been writing novels
since she was a student.
She's written 30 novels.
Adjectives as nouns
Adjective order
(прилагательные
в качестве
существительных,
порядок прилагательных)
The Chinese invented paper.
The poor are getting poorer.
They need to create more jobs
for the unemployed.

I bought a beautiful Italian leather bag.
Narrative tenses:
Past Simple,
Past Continuous,
Past Perfect
Past Perfect Continuous
We had been flying for about two hours
when suddenly the captain told us to
fasten our seat belts because we
were flying into a thunderstorm. When
this happened, most passengers
hadn't finished their meals yet.
so ... that
such ... that
There was so much traffic that we nearly missed the flight.
It was such a great show that I want to see it again.
Position of adverbs
and adverbial phrases
(наречия)
He walks slowly.
I've almost finished.
Ideally, we should leave at 8.
Future Perfect

Future Continuous
They will have finished painting
the house by Monday.
Don't phone between 6 and 7, we'll be
having dinner then.
Zero and First
Conditionals
Future time clauses
If you haven't been to Paris, you haven't lived.
If we are lucky, we'll have sold the house by Christmas.
I'll call you as soon as I've talked to the boss.
Unreal conditionals
If you exercised more, you'd be much healthier.
He would have died, if he hadn't been wearing a helmet.
Конструкции
с wish
I wish I was 20 years younger!
I wish I hadn't bought this car! / If only I hadn't bought ...
I wish you would stop calling me at night.
Gerunds and infinitives
(герундий и инфинитив)
Remember to lock the door VS I remember locking the door.
I stopped to smoke VS I stopped smoking.
Used to, be used to,
get used to
I used to live in the countryside. I was used to the peace
and quiet. I can't get used to the noise of the city.
must have been / done
might have been / done
can't have been / done
It must have been difficult for you.
They might have left.
I can't have lost it.
Verbs of the senses
(глаголы восприятия)
It smells good. It feels comfortable.
You look tired. Sounds interesting.
Passive Voice
(пассивный залог)
+ it is said that ...
+ have something done
My car has been stolen. You can be fined for making noise.
The church was being renovated when I last saw it.
The criminals are believed to have fled the country.
I need to have my car fixed.
Reporting verbs
He persuaded me to quit my job.
She apologized for not being on time.
Clauses of contrast
and purpose
(придаточные предложения
противопоставления
и цели)
I went to work even though I wasn't feeling well.
Although I was tired, I didin't want to go to bed.
In spite of / Despite the fact that she's 85, she's very active.
I went to the bank in order to speak to my bank manager.
I wrote it down so as not to forget.
whatever, whenever
whoever
Have a seat wherever you like.
Whatever happens, stay calm.
Uncountable
and plural nouns
(неисчисляемые сущ. и
сущ. во множеств. числе)
I need some advice. I'll give you two pieces of advice.
It's made of glass. Can I have a glass of water?
The hotel staff is very friendly / The hotel staff are very friendly.
The police are canvassing the area.
Quantifiers
All fruit contains sugar VS All the animals in this zoo look sad.
She wanted to study either physics or mathematics.
Articles
My father is in hospital. They're building a new hospital.
adv


Грамматика уровня Advanced

Какую грамматику
проходят на уровне
Advanced

Примеры грамматики
Have - auxiliary
or main verb
(have как
вспомогательный
и основной глагол)
Do you have any money on you?
Have you got any cousins?
I haven't a clue.
Do I have to pay now?
I need to have my eyes tested.
Discourse markers
and linkers
(союзы и связки)
Despite / In spite of her age, she's still very active.
Despite / In spite of the fact that she's 85, she's very active.
I keep checking my email in case there's an urgent message.
Pronouns
(местоимения)
They say it's never too late to change your life.
We decorated the house ourselves.
Past events:
habitual or specific
Привычные и
единичные события
в прошлом
I'd wanted to buy a new car for a long time. I'd been saving up
for 2 years and when I finally bought it, I was over the moon.

I used to have a car but I don't anymore.
Every night my mom would tell me a bedtime story.
Get
Значения
и употребление
Let's get a taxi. / It's getting dark. / He might get sacked.
I need to get my passport renewed.
Get Jane to call me.
Discourse markers:
adverbial expressions

As a matter of fact, I don't like football.
On the whole, I believe women are better drivers than men.
As far as the price is concerned...
Speculation
and deduction
Догадки и
предположения
I must have forgotten to lock the door.
You might have been injured.
It can't have been easy.
It ought to have arrived by now.
Inversion
(изменение порядка
слов в предложении)
Never have I heard such a ridiculous argument.
Not only is he attractive, (but) he's also smart.
Little did I know.
Distancing
It appears that the situation is going to get worse.
There seems to be a mistake in the bill.
There is thought to be some tension between them.
Unreal uses of
past tenses
If only you hadn't forgotten the map!
I'd rather you left the dog outside.
It's time we stopped arguing.
Verb + object +
infinitive / gerund
We expect the bus to arrive at 7.
I want Real Madrid to win.
Conditional
sentences
+ mixed conditionals
They won't get a table unless they've booked it in advance.
Provided the bank lends us the money, we're going to buy it.
If I'd listened to your advice, I wouldn't be in trouble now.
Permission, obligation
necessity
You don't need to take a jacket VS You needn't lock the car.
You aren't supposed to park here.
Verbs
of the senses
You seem to have made a mistake.
I saw him cross the street VS I saw him crossing the street.
Complex gerunds
and infinitives
She thanked him for having helped her.
By the time I'm 30, I hope to have started a family.
Future plans and
arrangements
My brother is due to arrive at 8.
I am about to get promoted.
The Prime Minister is to visit India next week.
Ellipsis
- You must see his latest film. - I already have.
He did it even though I told him not to.
- It wasn't my fault. - Well, if you say so...
Nouns
-s'
of
compound nouns
I borrowed my mother's car / She's at the hairdresser's.
She's got ten years' experience.
Can you remember the name of the film?
I opened the car door, got in and fastened the seat belt.
Adding emphasis
(усиление)
Cleft sentences
What I need is some rest.
What happened was we left our umbrellas in the taxi.
The reason why I bought it was because it was cheap.
Relative clauses
My brother who lives in Australia is a programmer.
VS
My brother, who lives in Australia, is a programmer.
I haven't seen him for 2 weeeks, which is a bit worrying.

Вот и вся английская грамматика по уровням.

Неужели после уровня Advanced английская грамматика заканчивается? Нет, конечно)) Если смотреть на уровни, есть еще уровень Proficiency, но линейки разговорных курсов действительно заканчиваются на уровне Advanced.

Возможно это потому, что:

  • даже амбициозному пользователю английского языка редко когда нужен уровень выше Advanced (не говоря уж про среднестатистических изучающих, которые останавливаются в районе Intermediate)
  • на высоких уровнях люди уже умеют находить нужные аутентичные материалы самостоятельно и самостоятельно же организовывать свое обучение
  • на высоких уровнях многие задумываются о более практическом и прицельном использовании английского - например, подготовка к международным экзаменам (IELTS, TOEFL и другие) или специализированные курсы по профессии

А тонкостей даже после уровня Advanced еще много остается!

Как вам английская грамматика по уровням?

Получилось с ее помощью определить свой уровень? Поделитесь в комментариях!

Автор: Дарья Масловская

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